What are the difficulties in avoiding direct discrimination on the basis of a protected characteristic (e.g. gender) when creating AI systems?

This is my formative writing task in Ethics and Regulation of Artificial Intelligence(LAWM161) at University of Surrey.

Professor: Mikolaj Barczentewicz

Over the past few years, lots of services or products with artificial intelligence have come to people’s life. After several waves of research in Artificial Intelligence, some AI technologies have been emerging like Machine Learning, Deep learning and Neural Networks. Although great progress has been made, research on ethics and laws still lags behind the development of technology. Besides, it turns out that prejudice and discrimination between people will also appear in AI systems easily due to the wide spread of AI systems. There are many reasons for discrimination. In the training process of the AI model, some inappropriate training data may be used, which may contain discrimination information. At the same time, the designer of the AI system will also entrain some personal emotions when designing. Or the idea that the decision made by the Ai system is discriminatory. Even the wrong use of the AI system by users will make them feel treated differently. In this article, I will focus on the direct discrimination when creating an AI system, and discuss some difficulties to decrease direct discrimination.

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关于Laravel框架中Guard的底层实现

1. 什么是Guard

Laravel/Lumen框架中,用户的登录/注册的认证基本都已经封装好了,开箱即用。而登录/注册认证的核心就是:

  1. 用户的注册信息存入数据库(登记)
  2. 从数据库中读取数据和用户输入的对比(认证)

上述两步是登录/注册的基本,可以看到都会涉及到数据库的操作,这两步框架底层已经帮我们做好了,而且考虑到了很多情况,比如用户认证的数据表不是user表而是admin_user,认证字段是phone而不是email,等等一些问题都是Guard所要解决的,通过Guard可以指定使用哪个数据表什么字段等,Guard能非常灵活的构建一套自己的认证体系。

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一些常用APP的URL Scheme

全网最全Url Scheme(Deeplink)

注意⚠️

**如果微信小程序打开失效,请更换开发者ID(wx开头的字符),**比如北京健康码:

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// wxd930ea5d5a258f4f 是开发者ID
weixin://app/wxd930ea5d5a258f4f/jumpWxa/?userName=gh_e3b81975fe3c

如果上面的URL Scheme失效了,请更换开发者ID如下:

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weixin://app/wx5599d44c9774e754/jumpWxa/?userName=gh_e3b81975fe3c

当前收集到的开发者ID如下:

微信开发者ID
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2
3
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5
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wx95a3a4d7c627e07d
wxc4c0253df149f02d
wx58164a91f1821369
wx095ef8ef7e64b291
wxca942bbff22e0e51
wxd9e0d500b5fb209f
wx5599d44c9774e754
wx76fc280041c16519
wx3d1a6db08c18a8a1
wx3bef52104e238bff

以下2021-08-24更新

粤康码

粤省事

微信小程序
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weixin://app/wxd930ea5d5a258f4f/jumpWxa/?userName=gh_1ac06b5a8f4e&path=operation_plus/pages/yiqing/daka/user/index/index.html

深i您粤康码:

微信小程序
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weixin://app/wxd930ea5d5a258f4f/jumpWxa/?userName=gh_9c23268d5db7&path=pages/mine/todo/code/code.html

穗康码

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weixin://app/wxd930ea5d5a258f4f/jumpWxa/?userName=gh_8052c0bb85ba&path=packages/health-code/pages/report-health/index.html

北京健康宝

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weixin://app/wxd930ea5d5a258f4f/jumpWxa/?userName=gh_e3b81975fe3c

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我的2021

2021已经结束了,又到了秀各种年终总结的时候,那么也不多我这一份。不知道大家在总结2021年时,是满怀成就感呢,还是懊悔自己某些事没做或者做错了,还是浑浑噩噩,没啥可圈可点呢?对于我来讲,这一年很充实。

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Caeser's cipher and Diffie-Hallman key exchange

CipherDisk2000 from Wikipedia

In my IoT class, one of my coursework is to implement a Diffie-Hallman key exchange algorithm which is used to exchange data without leaking safty information in the network communications. In my experiment, some communications take place between a client and a server, the transmitted data have been encrypted and decrypt with Caeser’s cipher when sent to the server from client after the connection is built. So my task is just to add Diffie-Hallman key exchange to secure a message delivery. In this article, I’ll introduce two algorithms, Caeser’s cipher or shift cipher[1] and Diffie-Hallman key exchange.

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